Meaning of Teaching
The word 'Teaching' is used in three different contexts. First, it is used to refer to that which is taught as a doctrine or a body of knowledge. In the expression, "the teachings of Guru Nanak" or "the teachings of Tagore", reference is made to a body of knowledge or a system of beliefs. Secondly, teaching is used to refer to an occupation or a profession. Thirdly, teaching is used to refer to methodology of making something known to others. Teaching in this third sense has been discussed here.
Teaching is a social process. The meaning of teaching is 'to teach'. Teaching is a three-dimensional process in which the teacher and the student realize their nature through the curriculum. That is, by making a subject matter a medium, we call teaching only the exchange of ideas or mutual interaction between the teacher and the learner.
1. Narrower Meaning of Teaching
The narrow meaning of teaching is related to school education. In which changes are made by the teacher to a child at a certain place in a specific environment by certain teachers in his behavior according to the curriculum. In this, some knowledge or advice is given by the teacher to the student in the class.
In ancient times, education was teacher-centred, that is, the teacher used to teach the children according to his own accord, in this the interests and aptitudes of the child were not taken into account. But in the present time education has become child-centred. That is, at present, education is given according to the interests and aptitudes of the child.
2. Wider meaning of Teaching
All that is included in the broader sense of teaching. A person who learns throughout his life. That is, the broad meaning of teaching is that in which a person learns through formal, informal and non-formal means. In this, the learner keeps on developing all his powers progressively from birth to death.
Definitions of Teaching
Some of such definitions are defined below:
1. According to Clarke, "Teaching refers to activities that are designed and performed to produced change in pupil behaviour."
2. According to Thomas F. Green, "Teaching is the task of the teacher which is performed for the development of a child."
3. According to Morrison, "Teaching is an intimate contact between a more mature personality and a less mature one which is designed to further the education of the latter."
4. According to B. O. Smith, "Teaching is a system of actions to induce learning."
5. According to Adams, "Teaching is a bipolar process, its one pole is teacher and another is the pupil."
Types of Teaching
A brief description of the type of teaching is as follows-
(1). Teaching on the basis of objectives:- Teaching on the basis of objectives can be of three types-
- (i) Cognitive learning:- The main objective of this teaching is to develop and reinforce the cognitive aspect or behavior (knowledge, understanding, experiment, analysis, synthesis and evaluation etc.).
- (ii) Affective Teaching:- In this, importance would be given to develop the affective side. Is. Upgradation, refinement, etc. of affective and emotional powers and behaviors become a major part of the process of teaching.
- (iii) Action Learning:- In this type of teaching, special attention is given to behavior change. In this type of teaching, the emphasis is on teaching a skill or a specific method of doing a task.
(2). From the point of view of teaching:- Teaching is a dynamic concept and process and there are many types of activities at the time of teaching. On the basis of these activities, teaching can be of three types-
- (i) To tell:- This type of teaching includes telling about any concept, principle, subject or thing etc.
- (ii) Demonstration or Demonstration:- Demonstration of a task, process or skill comes under demonstrative teaching.
- (iii) Working:- In this form of teaching, prominence is given to the development of skills and functional side.
(3). In terms of levels of teaching:- Teaching is a continuous and continuous process. This process can be the same at different mental levels of a person. For example, the process of teaching can move from a low level of thoughtlessness to a thoughtful level of reasoning. On this basis teaching can be of three types-
- (i) Memory Level Teaching:- In this type of teaching only effort is made to remember the given information well.
- (ii) Teaching of understanding level:- In this type of teaching, an effort is made that not only should any fact be remembered, but it should also be understood, that is, the meaning of concepts, the ideas contained in them, their nature etc. Go.
- (iii) Teaching of thinking level:- In this type of teaching, it is not limited to memorization or understanding, but it is tried that curiosity, interest, research, patience etc. It can be understood scientifically and can be solved logically.
(4). According to Governance and Administration:- The system of governance or education system of the country has a great influence on the nature of education. The type of administrative system in which education is imparted, it assumes the same form. On the basis of administration, teaching can generally be of three types-
- (i). An Autocratic Teaching:- In this method of teaching, the teacher is the focal point and the position of the teacher is considered as the principal and the position of the student is secondary. In this, all the activities of the student are given guidance and direction by the teacher. In a tantric teaching, the ideology of the ruler is given priority, the students have to follow his orders, due to this the teacher can also give impure knowledge to the students.
- (ii). Democratic Teaching:- This teaching method is called student-cooperative education system. In this, both the student and the teacher play a major role. In this method, the child can talk and do non-verbal actions in relation to the text object. In this teaching, the place of the teacher is considered as a guide or guide and both the student and the teacher have to respect each other's views.
- (iii). Laisses Teaching:- Independent teaching method is also known as open teaching method. This teaching method is based on innovative teaching. In this, the child learns free from pressure and hindrance. In this, the teacher encourages the creative nature of the student. While doing this type of teaching, the teacher behaves friendly with the student.
(5). From the point of view of the system of education:- From the point of view of the system, teaching can be of three types-
- (i) Formal Teaching:- In this teaching is purposeful. Teaching is conducted on the basis of a fixed curriculum according to age, time and place.
- (ii) Informal Teaching:- The nature of this type of teaching is different from formal teaching. The curriculum is not bound by time, place and age. There is no intention or plan behind the teaching. The learner also automatically acquires knowledge, ideas or some belief in an unexpected way.
- (iii) Non-formal education:- In this, education is organized on the basis of definite objectives, but there is no restriction of any course, time, place and income.
Nature of Teaching
The nature of teaching can be explained in the form of the following statements:
(1). Teaching is an inter-process:- It is conducted between the teacher and the students for a specific purpose. In this, that process of teaching goes on in the classroom in which both the teacher and the learner are involved. Interaction will not be possible if the teacher continues to give empty lectures and the learners remain passive listeners.
(2). Teaching is both an art and a science:- The nature of teaching is both artistic and scientific. Teaching planning and evaluation activities are more scientific in nature whereas the process aspect of teaching is artistic in which the teacher uses his skills. Presentational aspect of teaching is the art in which appropriate teaching skills are used by the teacher in such a way that the learners get a good understanding of the subject matter and other teaching objectives are achieved. In order that the teaching does not become monotonous, a source of entertainment is also given.
(3). Teaching is a developmental process:- Through the process of teaching, children are developed and the desired changes in behavior are brought from them. Cognitive, emotional and functional aspects are developed.
(4). Teaching is a continuous process:- Teaching is a continuous process which continues till the achievement of teaching-learning objectives. It has three aspects – action, learning and evaluation.
(5) Teaching is a process of guidance:– In teaching, efforts are made to develop the students according to their abilities. Thus the goal is of direction.
(6). Teaching is a three-way process:- Most of the educationists have called teaching as a tripartite process. According to Bloom, there are three aspects of teaching– (i) learning objectives, (ii) learning experiences and (iii) behavior change.
(7). Teaching is a purposeful process:- The activities of teaching are done to achieve some specific objectives. For them, similarly adopts the nature of the planned process.
(8). Teaching is a social and professional process:– The process of teaching is carried out in the group of teaching and students. It is absolutely necessary to have at least one teacher and one student. Teaching is a professional activity which individuals make their means of earning their livelihood, who are called teachers.
(9). Teaching is measured:- Teaching is measured in the form of teacher's behavior. Measurement of teacher behavior and analysis of behavior pattern are also done by observation methods.
(10). Teaching is a science:- The skill side of presentation of teaching is an art, but their actions can also be logically monitored and evaluated. This gives it a scientific basis.
(11). Teaching is a formal and informal process:- The education process is carried out in the school according to the fixed program and is also conducted outside the school.
Functions of Teaching
Following are the functions of teaching-
- To organize and organize the class.
- To create learning conditions.
- Analyzing the subject matter and task.
- Motivating student to learn
- To provide information about the individual differences of the students.
- To develop children from ordinary to creative beings.
- To solve the learning problems of the students.
- Understanding the early behavior of the students.
- Enhancement, Concept of Confidence and Clarification of problems.
- To conduct assessments to check the final behavior of the students.
- Preparation of course material.
Characteristics of Teaching
- A desire to share your love of the subject with students.
- An ability to make the material being taught stimulating and interesting.
- A facility for engaging with students at their level of understanding.
- A capacity to explain the material plainly.
- A commitment to making it absolutely clear what has to be understood at what level and why.
- Showing concern and respect for students.
- A commitment to encouraging independence.
- An ability to improvise and adapt to new demands.
- Using valid assessment methods.
- A focus on key concepts, and students misunderstanding of them rather than covering the ground.
- Giving the highest quality feedback on student work.
Variables of Teaching
Education is a three-pronged process, in which the teacher and the learner are living poles while the content is non-living poles. In the context of teaching, it can be said that teaching is an inter-process between the teacher and the learner by making the curriculum a medium of action. On the basis of the above facts, three thieves are confirmed in the process of teaching-
(1). Independent Variable:- The teacher comes under the independent variable. It performs various functions to provide learning experience.
(2). Dependent Variable:- Students come under the dependent variable because in the teaching process, work has to be done according to the planning arrangement and presentation.
(3). Intervention Variable:- In the teaching process, there are intervention variables like content, teaching methods, teaching methods, teaching array, etc.
Functions of Teaching Components
Teaching components have an important place in the conduct of the teaching process. Teaching variables have to perform three major functions-
- To diagnose
- Give treatment
(1). Diagnostic Functions:- In this, the independent variable teacher remains more active. The teacher decides what should be the prior behavior and skills of the learner to achieve the objectives of teaching. So that students can learn new knowledge and objectives can be achieved maximum. In this work, the teacher takes into account both the content and the student. In this, the following things are considered and the teacher takes a decision regarding them-
- Analyzing teaching problems
- Determining student behavior
- Aware of individual differences
- Doing job analysis
(2). Prescriptive Functions:- Teachers and students take decisions about the relationship between the two, because the objectives can be achieved only by establishing the correct relationship in the variables. Decisions are also taken regarding teaching tips and techniques. The main goal of this task is to bring about the desired behavior change. It has two main elements-
- Putting teaching skills into practice.
- To make proper arrangement of the methods of rearing.
(3). Evaluation Functions:- Evaluation is considered an important part of teaching. Without evaluation, the learning process cannot be considered complete. Its main function is to check the effectiveness of the second task. The criterion of evaluation is considered to be the achievement of the objectives. If the objectives are not achieved, it means that the teacher's treatment is faulty. There are two main elements of this aspect-
- Creating Criterion Exams
- Assessing behavior change
Need and Importance of Teaching
- Teaching is a skillful process. Teaching means imparting knowledge.
- Changes are brought about by teaching in the behavior and attitudes of the students.
- Education is an important tool for the success of present and future life.
- Teaching provides the scientific basis for the preparation of instructional designs.
- Teaching is essential for imparting knowledge to the students.
- Teaching provides information to the students.
- Teaching is necessary to develop various abilities and abilities in the students.
- Teaching exposes students to life experiences.
Basic Principles of Teaching
Good teaching is characterized by observance of following basic principles:
1. Good Teaching is Good Communication:- Effective teaching is dependent on successful teacher-pupil intercommunication. To facilitate intercommunication the teacher should know that
- (i) The child needs recognition and a feeling of personal worth.
- (ii) The child expects his teacher to reveal leadership, and
- (in) Children appreciate quick regular measurements of progress which show their growth.
2. Good Teaching is an Art:- The essentials of this art are skill in presenting the matter in an attractive and interesting way; fascinating method and technique of exposition; open mind and pleasing voice; graceful manner and smart appearance; simple but captivating language.
3. Good teaching demands the teacher to know nature of child:- The good teacher must have a through knowledge of nature of children he is teaching. He must remember that every child differs from every other child in regard to bodily health, powers, intelligence, abilities, interests etc. It is only then teaching can lead the child towards the goals of education.
4. Good teaching is kindly and sympathetic:- The good teacher knows that his children are immature and that they need his sympathy and help, so he tries to create homelike and pleasant environment in his classroom.
5. Good teaching develops emotional stability:- To do this the child needs love and affection. It is the joint task of the school and home to provide an atmosphere of affection for the children. A healthy and friendly attitude of teacher is most important to develop emotional stability among students. It encourages the child to be frank and sincere.
6. Good Teaching is Democratic:- Good teaching attempts to create a domestic environment in which the rights of individuals are respected. It encourages the students to ask questions, answer questions, discuss and comment.
7. Good teaching involves skill in guiding learning:- Good teaching involves providing guidance, direction and encouragement of the pupil toward desired effort in learning. It opens up the fields of investigation, introduces new materials, suggests methods of procedure and aids the individual to estimate his progress.
8. Good teaching is cooperative:- Teaching is a cooperative activity of both the teacher and the taught. The pupil should be given opportunities for seeking cooperation in organization, management, discussion, discipline, recitation and evaluation of results.
9. Good teaching is well-planned:- Good teaching is a planned activity of a good teacher. He thinks out his problems carefully well in advance. He plans his classroom activities keeping in mind the objectives, appropriate teaching techniques and audio-visual aids.
10. Good teaching is remedial:- Good teaching must provides remedies for individual as well as for group difficult es. Skill in remedial work demands adequate acquaintance with a variety of devices and techniques for remedial work in various school subjects.
11. Good teaching is progressive:- The good teacher is concerned with all round development of children which leads toward desirable social goals. It includes progress of children in the achievement of attitudes, interests, ideas, skills and abilities and development of habits of Thought and action. So the teacher must grow in skill and technique as well as in the improvement of goals.