Differences between teaching method and teaching strategy
The term teaching strategy is sometimes confused with other similar terms and concepts like teaching-method, techniques, devices, and tactics etc., which are associated with teaching activities of a teacher. The distinction among these terms must be understood.
Methods and Strategies
Different teaching methods like lecture method, demonstration method, inductive-deductive method, heuristic method, problem solving method, project method etc., are used for our presentation of the subject matter to the students. Any method which we use is always selected and directed to serve our purpose of presenting the subject material as effectively as possible. Thus, any method reflects a particular mode of presentation of some specific contents of a subject.
On the contrary, a strategy is selected and employed not only for the effective presentation of some specific subject material but also for the realisation of the pre-determined teaching-learning objectives. Thus strategy is a term is more comprehensive in its scope as well as structure in comparisons to a method. The distinction between them is summarised in the following table.
|S. No.||Teaching strategy||Teaching tactics|
|1.||A teaching strategy is always goal directed and the goal is the realisation of the set teaching-learning objectives.||Teaching tactics represent those activities and behaviour of the teacher which help in devising and implementing a suitable strategy for the realisation of the set objectives.|
|2.||Teaching strategy includes the activities both on the part of the learners and the teacher for creating appropriate teaching-learning environment for the realisation of the objectives.||Teaching tactics are concerned only with the behaviours and activities of the teacher responsible for creating suitable learning structure.|
|3.||Teaching objectives and task analysis are quite fundamental to a teaching strategy.||Creation of an appropriate fearning structure is central theme for teaching tactics.|
|4.||Teaching strategy is a comprehensive term which includes all what a teacher does in fulfilling his task of teaching. i.e., realisation of objectives. Thus a teaching strategy includes teaching methods, teaching techniques, teaching aids material, teaching tactics etc., for framing such a broad teaching learning structure as to help the learner in the realisation of the set objectives.||Teaching tactics quite Teaching tactics is quite a small and limited term in comparison to teaching strategy. It is a small segment, component or unit of the teacher behaviour helpful to him for the realisation of his teaching objectives.|
Thus any task for its effective performance has to be dealt with theoretically and practically. A theory provides a framework, useful planning and scheme incorporating effective steps to be taken for performing a task or experiencing any activity as successfully as possible. Teaching is a task, undertaken by the teacher to produce desirable changes in the behaviour of the students.
For performing this task effectively a teacher needs some pre-planning and theoretic understanding of activities that are desirable to set his behaviour in tune with the task to be performed by him. Theories of teaching, equip him with such theoretical understanding and framework.
Definition of Teaching Tactics
E. Stones and S. Morris (1972) defines teaching tactics as "Teaching tactics is goal linked influenced or influencing behaviour of the teacher. the way he behaves in the instructional situation in working towards the development of the strategy; units of teaching behaviour through which the teacher fulfils his various instructional roles with the students of his class from moment to moment; the components of teaching behaviour through which the teacher, the students and subject-matter interact".
Meaning and Nature of Tactics
From the analysis of this definition, the meaning and nature of tactics is as follows:
- Teaching tactics represent those behaviours or activities of a teacher which he works out and makes use for the development of a particular teaching strategy.
- Teaching tactics are fundamental or basic units of teacher behaviour helpful in creating suitable learning structure for realisation of set objectives.
- Teaching tactics help the teacher for playing various instructional roles from time to time in connection with the implementation of a teaching strategy.
- Teaching tactics may include all those activities and teaching behaviours-verbal or non-verbal which may be helpful in making a healthy triangular interaction among the teacher, taught and the subject matter.
- Teaching tactics help in the creation of appropriate learning structure for enabling the learner to achieve the determined learning objectives.