Simulated Social Skill Training
A number of techniques is being used currently in India as well as in other countries for the modification of teacher-behaviour. The simulated social skill training is one of them. Cruick Shank (1968) has developed a teacher training system. This system of training is being devoted by several terms such as Role-playing, artificial teaching. Pilot training, laboratory method, clinical method and inductive scientific method. The current teaching practices our teacher-education programmes have the following limitations:
- The pupil-teacher are sent to actual classroom teaching during teaching practices programme without inducing the role of teacher. Some training institutions have the provision for demonstration lesson.
- There is no provision for providing reinforcement for the pupil-teacher behaviour. The supervisors give remarks for their teaching task in general may as criticism of lesson. There is no scope to follow the suggestions given by the supervisors.
- The teaching practices involves risk and humiliation for pupil teachers because they do not know even the class-room manners.
The simulated social skill training (SSST) has the direct improvement over these limitations of traditional teaching practices.
Meaning and Definitions of Simulated Training
The simulation technique is to induce certain behaviours in artificial situation. A pupil-teacher has to play several roles as a teacher as a student as a supervisor. Simulation gives us greater control over the teaching variables. It is based on socio-drama. The socio-drama is very much related to the Practice. The most important aspect of simulation is the introduction of the student to teaching is non-stressful conditions.
The simulated social skill training can be defined as mechanism of feedback device to induce certain desirable behaviours among pupil teachers by playing the role of teacher in their own group as an artificial situation of classroom teaching. Cruick Shank considers that much more work needs to be done developing the techniques of simulation.
Assumptions of Simulation Technique
The SSST is based on the following assumptions:
- The teacher-behaviour is modifiable by the use of feedback devices.
- The basic assumption is that there are certain patterns of teacher. behaviours which are essential in effective-teaching. These behaviours can be described and practised like any other skill. The observe identifies those behaviours and teacher practice those pattern to teaching behaviour.
- The teacher-behaviour has its taxonomy. Karl Openshaw has developed the taxonomy of teacher-behaviour by the use of simulated technique.
- Another assumption is that social skills are developed by practice and limitation in a group. All members of the group have an opportunity to practice in controlling and improving their own behaviour for teaching purposes.
The Procedure of Simulated Training
The technique is used for developing the social skill of teaching classroom situation. This is generally employed for the pupil-teachers before sending them in real classroom in their teaching practice. Certain steps have been outlined merely as suggestions. The teacher educators can develop their own procedure of SSST. Generally the following six steps art used in Simulated Training technique:
Step 1. The pupil-teachers are assigned roles which they have to play in SSST. Each individual has a chance to be a teacher, students as observer.
Step 2. After assigning the role, certain social skills are discussed which are to be practiced. The teaching skills are discussed for a topic Each candidate has to select a topic of his interest.
Step 3. A schedule of organizing SSST is prepared who will start? Who will stop?
Step 4. The procedure and technique of observation are also decided What kind of data of observation are to be recorded? How can the data be best interpreted?
Step 5. The schedule is followed for the first practice session. The teaching is organized and observations are taken for evaluating the teaching task of the actor. The teaching is followed by discussion and demonstration to provide the feedback to the pupil-teacher by giving the awareness of his social skills of teaching and suggestions for the improvement.
Step 6. The procedure is one changed, by changing topic, teacher, pupils observer and social skills. Every pupil-teacher should have the interest as high as possible in playing the every role which is assigned to him. The topic and social skills should not be easy or too difficult.
The Elements of Simulated Training
The procedure consists of three roles, teacher, pupil and observer. Cruick Shank considers that this teaching paradigm also includes three elements:
- Prescription and
Taxonomy of Teacher-Behaviour
Under this teaching student-teachers simulated a particular activity of role and they try to develop and identity with the actual classroom situations. The whole simulated teaching programme becomes a training in role perception and role playing. The handling behavioural problems and classroom are better mastered through simulated teaching sessions.
Karl Openshaw and other Ohio State University have tried to develop a taxonomy of teacher-behaviour where they feel that a comprehensive view of teacher behaviour includes four major dimensions:
- A Source Dimension.
- A Direction Dimension.
- A Function Dimension and
- A Sign Dimension.
Each of these dimensions of teaching according to Karl Openshaw in observable and qualitifiable, the analysis of which provides empirical evidence, about what a teacher does, how he behaves while teaching.
1. The source dimension of teaching provide interaction of the relationship of student and teacher at a basic level. Teaching is the interaction between projector entity called teacher and receptor entities within a classrooms situation.
2. The identification and classification of the nature of receptor entities provide the direction dimensions of teaching the study conducted by K. Openshaw and others.
3. The teacher has to perform certain tasks. These tasks presentation of subject-matter) should be dealt with beliefs, attitudes, skills and process of instruction. The second task is to establish and maintain interpersonal relationship among students in classroom. The third task is to facilitate the learning process. These three tasks constitute the function dimension of teaching.
4. In order to observe a behaviour it should be communicated in some Way. The communication may require more than one mode of expression in fulfilling a given function. The mode of behaviour makes the sign dimension.
This indicates that the source of behaviour controls other dimension of teacher-behaviour but it may be determined through the observer recognition of the target of focus, the direction dimension. The mode of interaction together with the purpose of behaviour gives meaning to all behaviours. Some modes limit the range of possibility of purpose whil other purpose may limit the modes behaviour available to the teacher. A given behaviour may be classified in more than one category of the function dimension. Each encounter may have a number of shifts within sign-dimension. Any change in the source and direction and dimension indicate new encounter.
Advantages of Simulated Training
Cruick Shank suggested a number of advantages of simulated technique:
- The major advantage is that in using the technique we are forging close links between theory and practice.
- The students-teachers are given an oportunity to study the analyse critical teaching problems.
- The students can acquire classroom manners through the technique of simulation.
- The student can understand behavioural problems of classroom and develop insight to encounter them.
- The technique provides reinforcement to students to develop teaching skills and avoid the risk of actual class-room encounter.
Use of Stimulated Social Skill Training
This technique may be used in the following problems of teaching:
- The appropriateness of open or closed question skills is in teaching situations. ascertained
- The ability to ask questions is developed in which the concepts and logical sequence have been expressed previously by pupils.