Teachers perform a variety of tasks in different situations and in different contexts. He takes part in various school activities. All these actions of the teacher can be placed in a common class teacher behavior, but the meaning taken by teacher behavior in different thesis is different from this.
According to Raynes (1970), teacher behavior refers to all those actions and behavior of a person which is considered to be capable of doing a teacher. In particular, those activities are related to the direction and guidance in the learning of others.
Under teaching in the classroom, the teacher observes the students, feels their feelings and tries to understand as much as possible, presents the subject matter to the students, analyzes it and explains it. Language has to be used in all these teaching activities. Therefore, teaching is mainly a verbal practice. Although nonverbal behavior like facial expressions, physical movements, etc. of the teacher also take place in the classroom, but it is found from the observations that in the classroom teaching, the priority is given to the verbal behavior.
Teacher:- The goal of education programs is to produce effective teachers. Effective teachers are born and are also prepared by training. Teacher education and development is the system through which effective teachers are produced. The school is considered to be the teacher preparation laboratory and is the classroom workshop of the school. Development activities are conducted in this workshop (classroom). The main activity of these classes is teaching. When student teachers are given the opportunity to practice core teaching. Then it is called 'student teaching'. The main objective of student education is to develop teaching skills and competencies. Three types of skills are developed in the student-teacher, these skills are as follows-
- Linguistic skills
- Teaching Skills
- Social Skills
Students:- Dimensions, nurturing techniques are used for the development of the above skills in teaching. The area of development of student learning is more. Here is a list of the main qualities, skills and competencies of a teacher.
- The teacher should have commitment to his teaching work and should take interest in teaching and read engrossed.
- The teacher should take interest and cooperate in the management and administrative work of the school.
Theory of Teacher Behavior
The definition of teacher behavior given by Rayon (1970) has two major approaches:
1. Teacher Behavior is Social Behavior:- According to Ryans, teacher behavior is a social behavior i.e., in the teaching process besides the teacher (teacher) it is necessary to have the learner (student) with whom the teacher interacts with the communication activities and the students. affects. The interaction between teacher and student is mutual. Therefore, not only the teacher influences the behavior of the students, but the students also influence the teacher behavior.
2. Teacher Behavior is Relative:- Whatever the teacher does in the classroom is the result of the social situation in which the teacher teaches. Teacher's behavior is good or bad, right or wrong, effective or ineffective, depending on the extent to which the teacher's behavior, the type of student achievement, the expected teaching methods conform to the values of the culture in which he or she lives. and for which he is preparing future generations.
Basic Concepts of Teacher Behavior Theory
1. Teacher Behavior Situation:- It is the working form of the inborn elements and the personal characteristics of the teacher. Whatever happens to the behavior of the teacher. It is influenced by the circumstances and the individual characteristics of teaching and the result of the interaction between these two is called teacher behavior.
2. Teaching behavior can be observed:- When teachers think about the study of behavior and then try to study, then it is assumed that the objective study of teacher behavior either by direct observation or by indirect means. (which is related to teacher behavior). Indirect means are assessment of student behavior, use of teacher's ability and knowledge tests, interview, interest, aptitude etc.
Types of Classroom Behavior
There are two common types of behavior in the classroom- 1. verbal behavior and 2. nonverbal behavior
1. Verbal Behavior
In the classroom, when teachers and students communicate by speaking, this behavior is called verbal behavior. In this the medium of interest is oral, written and symbolic.
The verbal behavior of the teacher creates a special classroom environment. It encourages or discourages independent responses by students. What amount of freedom does the teacher give to the students in the classroom? On this basis also the verbal behavior of the teacher can be divided into two parts-
(i) Direct Verbal Behavior:- Direct Verbal Behavior is the behavior in which the teacher tries to establish his influence and dominance in the class, criticizes the thoughts and behavior of the students, does not provide opportunity to the students to speak freely in the class Is. In this regard, some educationists have called the teacher dominant.
According to Kogan (1956), teachers with direct behavior are anti-social, impatient, self-centred, forward, conceited, hostile. They do not adopt sympathetic behavior towards the students. Qureshi and Hussain (1972) have pointed out several characteristics in this type of teacher– it prevents students from participating in the teaching-learning process.
In this type of behavior the psychological fact of individual variation of students is not accepted. Thus there is no place for the desire, level, value, purpose, judgment, welfare of the students. As a result, there is a hindrance in the development and academic achievement of the students. According to Anderson (1930), students of a more dominant teacher have a higher frequency of anti-teacher behavior.
(ii) Indirect Verbal Behavior:- When the teacher gives freedom to the students to act, express their thoughts, then this type of behavior is called indirect behavior. The teacher accepts and explains the ideas of the students. He does not force the students to accept his views. In Flanders this type of behavior is called indirect behavior and Anderson coordination behavior. Similarly, Lipitt and White call this type of behavior democratic (student-centred).
The teacher speaks less in the classroom and provides more opportunities for the students to speak. Understands the problems of the students and tries to solve them. Such a teacher asks more questions, from which the students get the motivation to remain active in the teaching-learning process. Kogan (1958), on the basis of his study, has described a teacher with indirect behavior as helpful, good-natured, friendly, trustworthy, patient, happy and advisory.
2. Nonverbal Behavior
Most of the teaching-related activities are carried out by verbal exchange, however, there is also non-verbal behavior in the classroom, which is no less important. Nonverbal behavior is that behavior in which the communication of feelings and ideas is not done between the student and the teacher, but through gestures and gestures. Shaking the head of the teacher to encourage the students, using the finger to stop the students from speaking, smiling, frown, etc.
If the teacher looks at a student's wrongdoing, turning red and yellow with anger, then surely the student understands that he should not do this work. If the teacher brings a smile on the face, reduces tension, and nods when a student does a task, the student is more encouraged to act that way. The exchange of ideas through such gestures and gestures is called nonverbal behavior.
Due to the predominance of verbal behavior in the classroom and being able to study it reliably, most of the studies related to classroom behavior have been done on verbal behavior and not on nonverbal behavior. Purely classroom nonverbal expression performance is much lower than verbal behavior.
It can be said that this dimension is not practical and useful in favor of teachers but for pupil teachers. Teachers and pupils are the major variabls of teaching theory. It is concerned with effective learning and development of pupils. It is good to discuss a proficient teacher in the traditional form, but its implementation is difficult. The behavior of a proficient teacher can be imitated, but it is difficult to analyze. Process analysis of teaching includes many elements– verbal behavior, teaching skills, social skills, instructional process, teacher methodologies, aids, motivational activities, diagnostic and correctional teaching, auxiliary methods of teaching, etc.