## Models of Teaching

* Teaching models* act as the basis for the indoctrination of teaching theories and, thus, considered as hypothesis for teaching theories, therefore, teaching model contribute to make the teaching effective and interesting because development of teaching models is brought about by keeping in view the learning theories so that the teaching theories may be indoctrinated by using these learning theories.

In this way, the * teaching models* are the basic and the first step for the indoctrination of the theory of teaching. In every model, such situations are created in which an interaction of pupils occurs, causing the achievement of the objective, by bringing about changes in the behaviour.

**1. According to Joyce and Weil**, "A model of teaching is a plan or pattern that can be used to shape curriculum (long term courses of study), to design instructional materials, and go guide instruction in the classroom and other settings."

**2. According to Hyman**, "The model is a way to talk and think about instruction in which certain facts may be organised, classified and interpretive."

**3. According to Eggen**, "Models are prescriptive teaching strategies designed to accomplish particular instructional goal."

## Elements of Teaching Model

Fundamental elements of teaching models are:

**1. Focus:-** Every teaching model has one or the other objective which is called its focal point. A teaching model is developed by keeping in mind this focal point. In other words, the focus of a teaching model is that for which a teaching model is developed. The model has various phases. Hence, for this, some particular types of competencies are developed.

**2. Syntax:-** The syntax of teaching model means those points which produce activities focused on educational objectivities at various phases. In this way, under syntax, the teaching tactics, teaching activities and interaction between a pupil and the teacher are determined in such a sequence that the teaching objectives are achieved conveniently by producing desirable situations.

**3. Social system:-** A social system is according to the focus of a teaching model. Since every teaching model has separate objectives, therefore, every teaching model will have separate social system. The real situation is that every class is a society, which has some system or administration. This system is made up of pupil, teacher and curriculum. The society makes this system active by educational interaction so that the behaviour of the pupils may experience desirable changes. In this way. under the social system, the activities of the pupils and the teacher and their mutual relationships are discussed. Hence, the social system occupies an important place in making the teaching impressive.

**4. Support system:-** In this support system, it is evaluated by oral or written examination, whether the teaching objective has been achieved or not. In other words, to determine whether the teaching was successful or not. On the basis of this success or failure, a clear idea is achieved regarding the effectiveness of those strategies, tactics and techniques which were used during teaching. Since, each teaching model has a separate focus; therefore, the support system for every teaching model would also be separate.

**5. Principle of reaction:-** Principle of reaction conveys to the teacher how to regard the learner and how to respond to what the learner does. In some model of teaching the teacher overtly attempts to shape behaviour by rewarding certain student activities and maintaining a neutral stance towards others. On the contrary, in other models such as those designed to develop creativity, the teacher tries to maintain a non evaluate, equal stance so that the learner becomes self directing.

## Activities implied in Teaching Models

Teaching model implied following activities:

**1. Guidance:-** A model of teaching serves a useful purpose of providing a definite terms what a teacher has to do. He has comprehensive design of instruction through which he/she can achieve the objectives of the course. Teaching is a scientific, controlled and directed activity. Thus, a model of teaching provides guidance to the teacher as well as to the students to attain the goal of instructions.

**2. Developing curriculum:-** A model of teaching helps in the development of curriculum for different course at different levels of education, which is functionally transacted by the teacher.

**3. Specification instrumental material:-** A model of teaching specifies, in detail the different types of instrumental materials which are to be used by the teacher to bring desirable changes in the personality of the learners.

**4. Improvement in teaching:-** A model helps improving the teaching learning process in systematic and scientific manner and ultimately helps developing.

## Importance and advantages of Teaching Models

The teaching models have the following advantages:

- The different kinds of models may be used to achieve the specific objectives of various school subjects.
- Teaching can be made more effective and purposive.
- Teaching models are useful to develop social efficiency, personal abilities, cognitive abilities and behavioural aspects of the students.
- An analogy may be drawn to develop some teaching models which may suit to out Indian situations.
- It provides a great scope for research work to study the nature of teaching.
- Teaching and learning relationship may be established empirically by the use of these models.
- The new models of teaching may be invented to use the psychological forces in teaching.
- These models are the paradigms of hypotheses of teaching may be helpful in formulating theories of teaching.

## Characteristics and Functions of Teaching Models

Teaching models are based upon the following characteristics and function:

- Teaching is a means for generating an environment of learning. It involves independent variables.
- The content and sill function as an instruction through which students and teacher interact to one another. Thus, it provides an opportunity to develop physical and social efficiency.
- Different types of teaching objectives are achieved by organizing teaching elements in different ways.
- Teaching models provide the learning experiences by creating appropriate environment for real behaviour outcome.

## Role of Teaching Models

Models of teaching serve the following purposes:

- It may help a teacher to develop his capacity to teach more children and create conducive environment for them.
- It may help curriculum-makers to plan learning centre and curriculum which provides a variety of educational experiences to children.
- It may help material to make to create more interesting and effective instructional material and learning sources.
- It may stimulate the development of new educational forms-the educational opportunities which will replace the schools of today.
- It may help to formulate a theory of teaching.

## Types of Teaching Models

Review of literature of "Teaching Models" suggests a variety of sources. **John P. Decceco** has discussed the four Basic Psychological models of teaching. He considers that Glaser's teaching model is Basic Model of Teaching. **Israel Schefler** has described three philosophical teaching models in hierarchical order. **E.E. Haddan** has explained four teacher educational models. **Bruce Joyce** and **Marsha Weil** have written a book on "**Models of Teaching**". They have classified teaching models under the four families and these can be entitled 'Modern teaching Models. All the teaching Models may be classified and give as follows:

### [A] Historical Teaching Models

- The Socratic Teaching Models-
**Socrates.** - The Classical, Humanistic Model-
**Broudy.** - The Personal Development Model.

### [B] Philosophical Models of Teaching

- The Impression Model-
**John Locke.** - The Insight Model-
**Plato.** - The Rule Model-
**Kant.**

### [C] Psychological Models of Teaching

- A Basic Teaching Model-
**Robert Glaser.** - A Computer Based Teaching Model-
**Stolurow and Davis** - A Teaching Model of School Learning-
**John a Carroll.** - An Interaction Model of School of Teaching-
**Ned A. Flanders.**

### [D] Teaching Models for Teacher-Education

- Tabu's Model of Teaching.
- Turner's Models of Teaching.
- A Model of Variation in Teacher-Orientation.
- The Fox-Lippitt's Teaching Model.