Guilford's structure of Intelligence

Guilford and his associates working in psychological laboratory at the University of Southern California presented a dimensional model of intellect

Guilford's structure of Intelligence (S.I. Model)

J.P. Guilford and his associates working in psychological laboratory at the University of Southern California presented a dimensional model of intellect on the basis of factor analysis of several intelligence tests.

Guilford's structure of Intelligence

Guilford proposed that performance of any cognitive test can best be understood by analysing it into kinds of mental operations of process performed, the type of content or test material on which the mental operation is performed and the resulting product of performing a particular operation on a certain type of test content.

The three dimensions of the intellect model are:

  1. Operations: How information is processed.
  2. Contents: What information is involved.
  3. Products: The results obtained.

(1) Operations:- Guildford classified operations into five categories:

  1. Cognition is related to knowledge, understanding and recognition.
  2. Memory is the retention what has already been learnt.
  3. Divergent thinking:- In divergent thinking an individual thinks in many directions, gives many solution to a problem which are unique, novel and original. Here the stress is on flexibility.
  4. Convergent, thinking:- Correct answer is chosen for a problem out of many.
  5. Evaluation means taking decision and making sound judgement concerning criterion satisfaction of information.

(2) Content:- Guilford proposed four types of contents:

  1. Figural Content:- Concrete material perceived through senses e.g. pictures, objects and sounds.
  2. Symbolic Content:- Knowledge in the form of symbols such as letters, numbers and other symbols.
  3. Symantic:- Knowledge of contents expressed in meaningful words and sentences.
  4. Behavioural Content:- it is expressed in terms of human activity in relation to social situations.

(3) Products:- When certain operation is applied to kind of certain content, six types of products are involved. They may be:

  1. Units:- Related to individual pieces of information which are limited in size.
  2. Classes:- Groups related units of informations form one class because of some common characteristics.
  3. Relations:- Similarities and differences among different units come under the categories or relations.
  4. Systems:- The systems evolve as a result of large size of organized information and plans.
  5. Transformations:- Evolve as a result of change in information which can be brought about by new meanings and new definition.
  6. Implications:- These refer to pointing out various possibilities that exist in a situation.

Because Guilford's model contains five possible kinds of operations (Cognition, Memory, Divergent thinking, Convergent thinking and Evaluation), four types of contents (Figural, Sementics, Symbolic and Behavioural) and six types of products (Units, Classes, Relations, Systems, Transformations and Implications) it implies the existence of 5 x 4 x 6 = 120 possible factors comprising the structure of intellect. Guilford's main emphasis was to prepare test for every factor. However, till 1971 tests for only 98 factors have been prepared, which have been shown by factor analysis technique.

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