Meaning, Principles, Elements, Types and Characteristics of Communication

Meaning of communication

Communication is the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another person. It is a process through which a person reaches other person with knowledge, ideas, facts, thoughts and values. Merrihue defines communication as a process of "mutual exchange of thoughts, ideas, facts and emotions". It is a "process of getting across ideas and information to another person, meaning thereby, that a person presents, in some form, some information while the other person or groups of persons receive it. It is through this process that people relate themselves to other people. In a way, this is the process which builds a bridge of meaning and understanding between two or more persons.

Communication is a process which always involves two people, one. the sender of information and the other the receiver of the information. The existence of the receiver is essential in the process of communication as one person alone cannot communicate. The process of communication takes rise at the level of the sender, the communicator and terminates at the level of the receiver, some other person or group, who receives it and knowledges it.

Process of Communication

The basic communication model involves an informational or interpretive process in which messages, information or reaction to information travel from the indicator to receiver through the route called communication channel. The message conveyed by the teacher or the educational media may be verbal or visual and the receiver may listen or see and react in other ways. The communication channel in the classroom should ideally carry both messages and counter-messages, it involves initiation, reception and response which serve as feedback.

Meaning, Principles, Elements, Types and Characteristics of Communication

The communications must be kept open, as only when the teacher and pupils are able to communicate clarity and without interference of understanding and appreciation ensure. But unfortunately many interferences and communication barriers arise which impede the smooth flow of communication between the teacher and his pupils in the classroom, e.g., advertisements and entertainment's media. The communication channel employs media of teaching and learning. Type of communication channels have been described here.

Elements of Communication

Ideas are exchanged (exchange) in scientific communication, but for this process it is necessary to have the following elements-

1. Source:- It is the sender of the idea. Today is the scientific age of the era. Therefore, it is not necessary that the sender should be a person. Communication can be done by letter, magazine or machine, by anyone. Therefore, the 'communicator' is the main element of communication.

2. Message:- The message spread by the person is the message. This can be in both verbal and nonverbal forms, such as the teacher asking the student to sit in the classroom, saying 'sit down' and giving the message of tacit approval 'shaking the neck'.

3. Transmission medium or channel:- Channel means the means by which a message is transmitted from the messenger to the subscriber. This is the path in which the message is physically transmitted, e.g. Telegram. The wire on which the message is sent is the radio station and studio in the radio conversation. Similarly, newspapers or magazines are the medium of communication for an article.

4. Message subscriber:- It is the receiver of the message. He can receive the message in many ways, such as listening to the news, reading or seeing the news. Hence the message to the customer is also called 'customer communicator'.

In addition to these elements, we can also communicate by exchanging feelings through physical actions, such as making a posture of anger by not using words to scare the child through physical action. You can send and receive messages with the help of your eyes. Like many times a child is in the midst of teachers or family, when he is afraid to speak, then he talks to his peers by gestures. In this way, the communication method also completes the interaction between the student and the teacher.

Principles of Communication

1. Principle of Clarity:- Our language should be absolutely clear while communicating. Because if the language is not clear then the recipient will misunderstand its meaning. So our language should be clear.

2. Principle of Coordination:- Effective communication can take place only when coordination is established between the messages. Because without coordination the meaning of the earlier message would not be possible. Therefore, it is very important to have coordination while talking.

3. Principle of Compatibility:- When you talk, there should be no conflicting tendency between the messages, that is, both the messages should not contradict each other. The information should be in line with the policies, plans and objectives of the enterprise.

4. Principle of Specificity:- Information in communication should be polite and courteous. During communication, harsh words, abusive words, etc. should not be used.

5. Principle of Attention Attraction:- It is necessary to take care while conveying the message because if the sender does not have the attention then he can also send the wrong message. Therefore, attention is necessary while conveying the message.

Types of Communication Channel

There are three types of communication channels. (1) Speaking Listening, (2) Writing-Reading and (3) Visualizing Observing.

(1) Speaking-Listening:- In this type of communication, an interaction is face to face as in the case of a teacher. There are situations when the listener can share feelings of the source in the same way as in the case of eye to eye contact. Listening to the ratio is an example for this type of communication channel."

(2) Writing-Reading:- In this type of communication channel, the 'decoder' is physically separated from the 'encoder' all the time and yet the decoder is able to enjoy and appreciate the feelings of the author. Reading for an instruction material is an example for this type of communication channel.

(3) Visualizing Observing:- The observer is physically separated from it producer and yet is able to feel the impact of the ideas conveyed as in motion film of television. The dramatization is an example for this type of communication.

Through these communication channels a sender or teacher conveys his message through some media to a receiver or vice versa. The function of a sender is to encode the message and reviver students has to decode it.

Modes of Communication

There are two modes of communication which are used in teaching process:

  1. Oral communication (Speaking and listing channels).
  2. Written communication (Writing and reading channels)

The modes of communication are selected on the basis of learning objectives. The above four devices are used in teaching process and their description has been given here.

(1) Oral Communication:- This mode of communication employs speaking and teaching communication channel. The oral communication is largely oral or verbal interaction in classroom teaching. This is based upon audio lingual method. The teacher has to speak something orally the students have to listen the oral communications. It requires content first and expression on the part of teacher and the students listen the expression first than the theme or content.

The oral communication takes place between teacher and student with the help of speaking and listening operations. The communication strategy may be classified into sub-categories; Continuous prose and Heuristic Communication Strategy.

(2) Written Communication Strategy:- The oral communication. strategy does not ensure about the solution of the problem, but written communication ensures about the correct solution of the problem. This type of communication is based upon the cognitive code of method of teaching. An integration between teacher and the students takes place through reading and writing activities.

In writing, content comes first than expression and sequence is reverse in reading activities. Generally communications performed with the help of four activities: Speaking and listening, writing and reading. It is classified into two sub-categories: Algorithms and Decision table.

Characteristics of Communication

The main characteristics of communication are as follows-

  1. To exchange thoughts and feelings with each other.
  2. Communication involves sharing of thoughts and feelings.
  3. It is inherent in communication that both the parties develop. Both sides remain active.
  4. The exchange of thoughts and feelings is encouraged.
  5. In this, the process of exchange is given a back-up.
  6. Communication involves sharing of experiences.
  7. The process of communication is two-way. It also includes back-feeding and inter-processing.
  8. Efforts are made to provide pure experience through the process of communication. 9. Efforts are made to keep the sense organs and the senses of action active in communication.
  9. Communication is an important component of the process of teaching.
  10. Classroom interaction is done through communication.
  11. Language skills play an important role in communication.

Face-to-Face Communication

People with low self-confidence often find it difficult to make a good first impression, whether they're meeting a client, addressing a meeting, or giving a presentation. You may be shy or unsure of yourself, but you can take immediate steps to make yourself appear more confident.

Engaging with people is important, so maintain eye contact while you talk. This shows that you're interested in what they're saying, and that you're taking an active part in the conversation. But bear in mind an cultural considerations when it comes to body language and communication. Don't fidget or look away while the conversation continues, as this can make your appear distracted or anxious.

If shaking hands is the usual greeting in your workplace, be firm. Not too firm, though, and avoid being too upfront. Reaching for the other person's wrist or shoulder with your free hand is often seen as a way of establishing dominance, and it's not recommended for a first meeting. Avoid making the encounter awkward-or, worse, painful!

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