Memory Level of Teaching

Memory level teaching-learning is that kind of learning which supposedly embraces committing factual materials to memory and nothing else. Memory is

Memory Level Teaching

Memory level teaching-learning is that kind of learning which supposedly embraces committing factual materials to memory and nothing else. Memory is a mental process, which is definitely found in some or the other quantity in every living being. In fact, when a person sees an object, object or place, then the image or signs of that object, substance or place are formed in his mind, remembering these accumulated signs or things learned in the past is called memory. According to Woodworth, "memory is the direct application of learned experience."

Memory Level of Teaching

Assumptions of Memory Level Teaching

The following are the assumptions of memory level of teaching:

  1. The more meaningful material is to be learned easily it is to memorize. The more meaningful learnt material, the longer it tends to be retained.
  2. The capacity of memories and retain material probably bears no positive relationship to the capacity of intelligent behaviour.
  3. The memory material teaching contribute little to intelligent behaviour and for the problem solving.

Model of Memory Level Teaching

The model of teaching is originated by Herbert. It consists of five main steps: (1) Focus, (2) Syntax, (3) Social system, (4) Support system, and (5) Evaluation system.

(1) Focus:-

The teaching at memory material aims at causing learning that may enable the student:

  • To train the mental discipline.
  • To acquire factual informations.
  • To retain the learnt material for longer time.
  • To recall or produce and recognize the learned material.

(2) Syntax:-

The structure of the model is developed by five formal steps of Herbert. These steps form the paradigms of teaching.

(i) Preparation:- The function of this step is to bring in to consciousness relevant ideas of the subject-matter. A teacher plans about the presentation of the content.

(ii) Presentation:- The new ideas of knowledge of content is imparted in such a way that it may be linked with earlier knowledge of the students. The presentation at this stage involves the following activities:

  • Teacher should have a definite work.
  • Teacher should have a definite structure of teaching activities.
  • Teacher should impart specific content.

This kind of presentational teaching-learning has three characteristics: (1) Definiteness, (ii) Predictability, and (iii) Observable specified knowledge structure.

(iii) Comparison and Abstraction:- In this step, the teacher attempts to compare between new system new facts and new ideas to identify similarities among new facts.

(iv) Generalization:- In this step, teacher generates the situations so that students are able to point out similarities of elements of ideas and knowledge. The changing of learning aids in generalizations. The rhythm and recitation methods are used at this stage.

(v) Application:- Teacher creates situations or problems so that student may use memorized facts for the further facts. The mathematical tables are used in multiplication and division.

(3) Social System:-

This model consists of authoritarian behaviour. The teacher is more active and his main job is to structure and to present the content systematically and logically in the class.

(4) Support System:-

This model requires some supportive devices to make it more effective. More meaningful material should be used to present at this level. The subject matter should be made define in its structure. The audio-visual aids may be used to involve more sense and make sense and make the content interesting for learner. The content) should be specified and presented in an observable form.

(5) Evaluation System:-

The evaluation is an indispensable aspect of teaching because it produces evidences about the realization of goals of the teaching model. Usually oral tests are given to measure the retention of learned material. The objective test of recall and recognition type are administered to evaluate the knowledge of students.

Suggestions for Memory Level Teaching

Under the following conditions, memory level teaching may work effectively:

  1. The retention of students can be increased by practice or drill.
  2. Repetition of the subject matter should be rhythmical.
  3. The continuous reinforcement should be provided to the learners,
  4. The material should have definite structure.
  5. The contents should be represented systematically.
  6. The frequent recall or reproduction of content should be performed.
  7. Whole to part method should be used.
  8. All parts of the content should be integrated and well sequenced.
  9. The fatigue factor should be avoided in presentation.
  10. The teaching content should be meaningful.

Merits of Teaching at Memory Level

The teaching carried out at memory level has many things on its credit side.

1. Firstly, such type of teaching may be found as to suit the very nature of the small children to certain extent as their memory at the younger age is the rote memory. They are very much capable of mugging up the things without caring to know their meaning and use.

2. Secondly, the task carried out at memory level in the form of acquisition of so many memorized facts prove quite helpful in the teaching-learning activities performed at the understanding and reflecting levels. Truely speaking, the memory level teaching provides solid base for erecting the higher structure of teaching-learning at the other two advanced levels.

3. Thirdly, the memory level teaching give full freedom to the teacher for realizing his goal i.e., to furnish maximum knowledge of his subject in the form of systematic and well connected pieces of information to his students in a quite planned way in a minimum duration of period.

Demerits of Teaching at Memory Level

Teaching at memory level is denounced on account of its demerits and defects summarized below:

1. Since the teaching-learning process is too much teacher dominated and there is no proper interaction between the teacher and learner it leaves a little or no scope for the proper personality development of the learners.

2. It is carried out at the lowest level of the student's thought processes and therefore provides no scope for the development of understanding, thinking, reasoning and other essential cognitive abilities of the students.

3. The memory level teaching poses a problems of class control and securing attention of the students for class room teaching. Motivating students on the basis of fear and other extrinsic object is also another weakness.

4. Despite the best efforts in such teaching there is no guarantee of good retention and appropriate reproduction of the memorized material by the learner. The retention, as usually such, is quite short lived and students many times are found to cut a sorry figure at the need of the hour. particularly at the testing or examination time.

Merits of Memory Level Teaching

(1) Basis of understanding and thinking level:- Teaching-learning at the memory level provides the student with the ability to remember many facts, general rules and results. This memorized knowledge proves very helpful to the student at the level of understanding and thinking of teaching-learning. Therefore, teaching-learning provides a solid foundation for building a higher structure in teaching-learning at the level of memory, understanding and thinking.

(2) Maximum information:- In teaching learning at the memory level, the teacher has complete freedom to achieve his objectives, that is, he is free to provide maximum information related to his subject in the shortest possible time. In this, he can present maximum information about the subject matter in a systematic and planned manner in the use of minimum resources and facilities in minimum time.

(3) Suitable for young children:- Teaching learning of memory level is suited to the nature of young children, because the ability to memorize is sharp at a young age. It is also favorable for their intellectual development, because at this age they are not in a position to understand, compare, analyze, synthesize and generalize.

(4) Acquisition of facts:- Teaching learning at the memory level helps the students to acquire facts and information without the use of higher intellectual abilities and thought processes.

Demerits of Memory Level Teaching

The following are the defects and errors in memory level teaching-

  1. There is no interaction between teacher and students.
  2. The teacher is the head in teaching the memory level.
  3. In this the place of the students is secondary.
  4. The students are kept under strict discipline.
  5. Memory level In teaching-learning, more emphasis is given on rote learning.
  6. Intelligence is not important in this teaching. Is.
  7. Memory level learning is confined to the cognitive side
  8. There is a lack of motivation in the teaching of memory level.
  9. Evaluation of learned knowledge is done by traditional method only.
  10. At the memory level, knowledge continues to be 'superficial knowledge'.
  11. Memory level teaching puts a lot of burden on the students.

Methods to Make Effective of Memory Level Teaching

To make memory level teaching effective, the following means can be adopted-

  1. The culinary items should be presented to the students sequentially.
  2. When students are ready to learn, then they should be provided education.
  3. Whatever points are related to education, they should be presented in a holistic form.
  4. The goal of education should be the acquisition of knowledge.
  5. Only meaningful and factual material should be presented.
  6. Practice and repetition should be encouraged in the classroom as it is through them that recall can be increased.
  7. There should be some rhythm, some sequence in the repetition of the syllabus that is given to the students.

Tips for Teaching Memory Levels

The following suggestions are being given to make the teaching of memory level more useful and effective-

  1. Make the text meaningful.
  2. The content should be presented as a whole.
  3. The text should be presented in a sequential order.
  4. Give more time to practice.
  5. Do not teach during fatigue.
  6. Assured reinforcement system should be used.
  7. Teaching at this level should be kept only for the purpose of acquiring knowledge.
  8. Repetitions should be done in one rhythm.

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