Reflective Level Teaching
Reflective level of teaching is that teaching which is problem-centered in nature in which the learner is engaged in original 18 imaginative and critical approach to the subject and does deep or serious kind of thinking. The learner examines facts and generalization and seeks out new one. Memory and understanding levels of teaching of the content are the pre-requisite for this level of teaching.
Reflective level of teaching tends to develop the classroom atmosphere which is more alive and exciting, more critical and penetrating, and more open than fresh and original thinking. Further more, the type enquiry is persuaded by a reflective class tends to be more rigorous and work producing' than pursued at an understanding level situation.
Meaning and Definition
Reflective means 'the art of thinking', 'thinking' or 'seriously', so the concept of teaching-learning at the level of thinking revolves around thinking, that is, finding out or paying attention to the latest findings by rethinking something.
According to Morris L. Bigge, "Careful, critical examination of an idea or supposed article of knowledge in the light of the testable evidence which supports it and the further conclusions towards which it points."
Psychological Theory and Ideas
Reflecting level teaching has its roots in the cognitive field theory of learning. This theory, also called as goal insight theory opposed the traditional mechanical memorization and meaningless understanding of the facts. It gave emphasis on the purposeful, goal directed, insightful approach to, learning and tried to make the learner learn the art and skill of the problem solving behaviour by identifying his goal and problem and learning to solve the problem in a scientific way. The reflective level teaching-learning in the spirit of this theory emphasizes upon the learning of generalized insight, ways of discovering the facts and acquiring the skill of problem solving.
Model of Reflective Level of Teaching
The credit for propounding the teaching model of reflective level goes to Mr. Hunt. That is why this teaching model is also called 'Hunt's Model of Teaching'. Hunt sir has described the model of thinking level model in the following steps:
1. Focus:- The following are the main objectives of this model:
- (i). To develop the ability for problem-solving.
- (ii). To develop the critical and creative thinking.
- (iii). To enable the student for independent or original thinking.
2. Syntax:- The structure of teaching at the level of thinking is designed keeping in view the nature of both the individual and the social, it is done in the following four steps-
- (i) In the first stage, the teacher creates a problematic situation in front of the students.
- (ii) In the second step, the students make hypotheses for the solution. Remember that more than one hypothesis can be made to solve a problem.
- (iii) In the third step, the students collect the necessary data to confirm the hypotheses. On the basis of these data it is decided whether the hypothesis formed can help in solving the problem or not.
- (iv) That hypothesis is tested in the fourth step. Decisions are drawn on the basis of this test, then the students have original ideas.
3. Social System:- The teacher should be creative, tactful and insightful and should be able to create the problematic situation and need in the learners. The role of the teacher is to assist the learner and make him active to involve in the problem. The learner should also be very active in finding out the situation of the problem by objectives and empirical procedure.
The self-motivation and level of aspiration are the sources of otivation at this level. The social norms and values may be helpful for selecting the problem. The teaching environment is quite democratic and critical.
4. Support System:- This type of system is important to make it more effective. The learner should be helped by social awareness and social values to feel the need of a problem. He should be encouraged to formulate as many hypothesis as possible. This is only possible by the personal involvement and high level of aspiration. The student should be further oriented to collect the evidences for the verification of the hypotheses. This ill lead in drawing conclusions regarding the problem.
5. Evaluation System:- he work ability of the paradigm of teaching is difficult to measure. The written test should be used to measure higher level of cognition. The essay type tests are the best devices to evaluate the outcome of reflective level teaching. The other techniques should be used to measure the involvement in the problem, attitudes, adjustment and critical thinking of the learner.
Advantages of Reflective Level Teaching
(1) Student-Centered Approach:- Teaching-Learning of the thinking level adopts a student-centred approach towards teaching and learning. In this, the student sets his own goal and himself finds the way to achieve the goal.
(2) Development of mental abilities:- The work of teaching-learning at the thinking level is done at a higher level than the memory and understanding levels. It helps in proper development of mental abilities of children, especially those related to higher intellectual functions. It develops creative, original and independent thinking in the students.
(3) Problem solving:- Teaching learning at the thinking level equips the students with problem solving abilities and provides them with the skills to deal with the problems faced both inside and outside the school.
(4) Suitable for all subjects of the school:- Teaching-learning of the thinking level can be applied to all the subjects of the school.
(5) Maximum Flexibility and Freedom:- The teaching-learning level of thinking provides maximum flexibility and freedom in the formation of courses, decisions of methods and procedures, organizational arrangements etc. According to Bigge, “Inter-level teaching-learning provides freedom from the difficult and rigid construction of course material, as it develops material that results from a good teacher-student relationship, rather than formal material.
(6) Development of higher abilities:- Teaching-learning of the thinking level, besides providing the understanding of various facts, principles, rules, acts, concepts and generalizations, also develops those high abilities in the students, which are capable of exploring new relationships and Helps in developing new approaches to problem solving.
(7) Exploration-oriented:- Teaching learning at the thinking level proves to be helpful in investigation-oriented, problem-centred and creation-nurturing learning. These qualities are highly needed in the rapidly developing present era.
(8) Transfer of training:- Teaching learning at the thinking level makes maximum transfer of learning possible while it is lacking at the memory and cognition level. Solving processes of perceived problems can be transferred to life situations (educational, occupational or personal).
(9) Democratic and stimulating environment:- Teaching-learning environment of thinking level helps in making the environment democratic, stimulating, friendly, healthy and lively. Such an environment encourages self-learning and free and fruitful interaction between teacher and students. The work of problem generation and problem solving is done in a very thoughtful, liberal and democratic environment.
Limitations of Teaching-Learning at Reflective Level
(1) Not suitable for small classes:- Teaching-learning of thinking level is more suitable for mature students of higher schools, colleges and universities, because in this those intellectual abilities are used in a more developed form whose problem solving and 'thinking-thinking' is required in. But it cannot be handled well in young children and students of small classes, because its effective implementation requires developed intellectual abilities.
(2) Not systematic:- The situations and course-materials to be presented at the thinking level are not structured. It does not follow a fixed schedule. It does not help in systematic acquisition of organized knowledge of school subjects.
(3) Slow and more time consuming:- Teaching-learning of the thinking level is slow and more time consuming. Due to today's curriculum and result-oriented approach of administration, no importance is given to the qualitative learning propounded by thought-level teaching.
(4) Burden of responsibility on teachers:- The burden of responsibility on school teachers of teaching-learning level of thinking may increase. There is already a heavy burden on them. Apart from this, it is not so easy to do teaching work at the level of thinking. It requires specific qualifications, experience and aptitude. Without this the desired result cannot be achieved in this type of teaching.
(5) Possibility of going astray:- Due to freedom and flexibility, there is a possibility of students going astray. In the absence of maturity and experience, students may waste their time and energy in fact-finding, unrelated questions, investigation and re-examination of facts and theories. They can also solve their problems wrong.
(6) No limit of curriculum and text book:- Teaching learning of the thinking level cannot be bounded in the limits of curriculum and text-books. It is problem centered. Therefore, it cannot be used in the present examination centered education system.
(7) Inadequate adaptability:- Big claims are made about the adaptability of teaching-learning of thinking level, but the reality is that this type of teaching-learning is suitable only for those subjects and cases in which investigation or problem solving approach is needed. is required.
Features of Reflective Level of Teaching
The following characteristics are found in this type of teaching-
- Teaching at the thinking level includes learning at the memory and cognition levels.
- The student is more active in this type of teaching.
- The teacher creates problems in front of the students that are vague and challenging.
- According to Hunt, the problems should be such that the student can solve them by using his thinking power.
Tips for Reflective-Level Teaching
The following suggestions have been presented for teaching at the level of thinking-
- Before this level of teaching, there must be knowledge of memory and understanding level.
- All the relevant steps should be followed.
- The aspiration level of the students should be high.
- They should have sympathy, love and sensitivity.
- There must be a sense of the problem.
- The importance of thinking level teaching should be told.
- Attention should be paid to cognitive development.
- Students should be given opportunities for more and more original and creative thinking.
- The learning environment should be kept democratic.
- Students should be motivated for more and more correct thinking.