Meaning of Project Method
Project method is based upon the ideas of the great American educationalist, Mr. John Deway. This philosophy lays emphasis on the practical or utilitarian value by saying that the things or ideas which have some practical value or are useful to the learner in one or the other ways must only be taught to the learner. Consequently the process of education must be centered around some useful or purposeful activity named as projects. We may know a lot about the nature and meaning of the term 'project' with the help of the following definitions given by some eminent scholars.
Kilpatrick realized that during his time a very deep gulf had developed between the school and the society and the two were separated from each other. Both have become disjointed in thought and field. Whatever is taught in the school is not in accordance with the society, as a result, whatever knowledge the child acquires in the school, he is able to make little use of it in the society.
The reason for this is that school education is not related to daily life. Social perspective is not taken into account in education. Purposeless, narrow, impractical and nerd education is provided in the school. In the words of Kilpatrick, "That is why we want education to penetrate deeply into real life. Not only in social life, but in the good life we aspire to." Therefore, in order to remove these defects and to relate education with real life, Kilpatrick introduced the planning system in the field of education.
Definitions of Project Method
1. According to Stevension, "A project is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting".
2. According to Kilpatrik, "A project is a whole-hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment".
3. According to Ballard, "A project is a bit of real life that has been imparted into school".
On the basis of all these explanations, it can be said that planning is a purposeful action and is related to real life and the child does it voluntarily in school with diligence. It has four elements-
- Purposeful action,
- A related plan,
- Verb form
- Social utility.
This planning system adopted in the field of education is based on various principles such as the principle of purpose or purpose, the principle of action, the principle of experience, the principle of freedom, the principle of utility, the principle of reality, the principle of sociality and the principle of kinship.
Steps in the Project Method
Project method is a systematic learning method. This teaching method is mainly divided into six stages, whose brief introduction is given below-
- Providing a situation
- Choosing and purposing of the project
- Planning of the project
- Execution of the project
- Evaluation of the project
- Recording of the project
1. Providing a situation:- In this method, first of all the teacher creates many problematic situations in front of the children. While creating these problematic situations, the teacher takes full care of the interest, stage and mental development of the children, that is, the problems are of such a level that the child can easily solve them. Now the children themselves find out the hidden problem in the situation and also make their own plans to solve that problem. The child and the teacher discuss the problems related to ideas, arguments, pros and cons etc.
2. Choosing and purposing of the project:- Many problems are inherent in every situation. Each child seeks out these problems and then chooses a problem according to his interest. After that, the children present their proposals to the teacher to solve this problem. In this situation, the teacher's job is to guide the children, that is, to ask the children to choose such projects which are related to real life and which have the most importance. The teacher should not force any project on the child. He should only guide and tell the children which project is so important. Thus out of all the proposed schemes, the most important one is selected.
3. Planning of the project:- After the selection of the plan, the child and the teacher decide the program through debate among themselves. All the children put forward their suggestions regarding the program in front of the teacher. Then after discussion between the two, the program is decided. The teacher should also give complete freedom and guidance to the children in determining the programme. His job is only to explain to the children that to choose such a procedure which can be completed under natural conditions and is more and more related to real life. The teacher should divide the program into several parts and give some work to each child according to his ability. In this way social qualities, social skills and sense of cooperation are developed.
4. Execution of the project:- After determining the program or procedure, now the children start their work, such as reading, writing, walking etc. Each child has a specific task. That's why everyone does their work with great enthusiasm. The teacher should not do any work throughout the project. He should help the children only when needed. Children do take time to work at their own pace, that is, the knowledge gained by self-learning in this way is quite permanent. Children take a long time to learn or do new work. Therefore, the teacher should not be disturbed and do such a thing that he should do the work himself. Doing so will lose the importance of the project. It is the responsibility of the teacher that he continues to encourage the children, this increases their speed, if needed, the teacher can suggest the children to make changes in the project, but should not make changes themselves.
5. Evaluation of the project:- After the completion of the work, the teacher and the students see how far the plan has been successful, that is, the objective for which the project was started, whether that objective has been achieved or not and what were the reasons for the failure or partial success. and how can they be removed? Every child freely expresses his views on this subject. Everyone sees and understands their own mistakes. Everyone criticizes each other's mistakes. Everyone benefits from this, that is, everyone gets knowledge about the right thing.
6. Recording of the project:- Every child has a brochure in which he writes the details of the day-to-day tasks. The child himself writes the progress of his book in his brochure. On the other hand, the teacher writes down the child's daily progress in his booklet. This helps in evaluating the work of each child at the end i.e. at the completion of the plan. It also becomes clear that what were the difficulties in the work and how the errors can be overcome.
Features of Project Method
A brief description of some of the distinguishing features of a planning or project method is given below:
1. Practicality of knowledge:- Whatever knowledge the child acquires through this method is practical and can be used in life, so it is beneficial and appropriate to acquire knowledge by this method.
2. Psychological method:- The planning system of teaching is a psychological method in itself. Under this system, children are made to work according to their interest, ability and their ability.
3. Helpful in mental development:- The whole process of this method goes in such a way that every child gets equal opportunity to think, think, reason and decide from beginning to end. This leads to the full development of their various mental powers.
4. Equal Opportunity for Development:- Under this system of education, opportunity is available to all the children to work equally. Due to this, whether the child is sharp intellect or with slow intelligence or ordinary intelligence, every child develops equally.
5. Self-development takes place:- In this method every child gets an opportunity to learn by doing. This develops self-confidence, self-reliance and activity in them. 6. Naturalness of Curriculum Subjects- Children are made to know about the subjects in natural conditions. This keeps the knowledge natural.
7. Development of social spirit:- Under the present education system, all the children have to work together. This develops cooperation and other social feelings in them. At the same time, a sense of citizenship is also developed in them.
8. Development of character:- Mentioning the merits of the planning system of teaching, it has been said that this system is helpful in the development of character.
9. Relationship between home, school and society:- One of the merits of the present education system is that through it a relationship is established between home, school and society. All three together contribute to the education of the child.
10. Interesting system for children:- This system is interesting for children. Due to this quality, children acquire knowledge of many things quickly and successfully.
- It gives freedom to children It enable the children to learn from their own experience.
- It is free from the defects of the text book method.
- It is a natural method of acquiring knowledge.
- It gives training in social adjustment.
- It gives training in democratic way of living.
- It trains the children in solving problems It helps the teacher to understand his pupils.
- It hampers the completion of syllabus.
- There is a possibility of giving more importance to less importance.
- It may lead to unsystematic learning.
- It may lead to monopolization by some students.
- It may disturb the school working system.
- It increases work loads of teachers.
- It is an expensive method.