Meaning of the skill
The skill of introducing the lesson may be defined as proficiency in and the use of verbal and non-verbal behaviours, teaching aids appropriate devices for making the pupils realize the need of studying the lesson by establishing positive and effective rapport with them.
This skill involves the following component behaviours:
- The student teacher is able to utilize previous knowledge and experiences of his pupils.
- He is able to maintain continuity of the class and information in the introduction of a lesson.
In this way, utilization of previous experiences, the appropriate devices, maintenance of continuity in the main parts of the introduction and relevancy of the verbal and non-verbal behaviours are the major component behaviours or constituents of the skill of introducing lesson.
1. Use of appropriate devices/techniques:- A teacher should essentially acquire the ability of using appropriate devices or techniques for introducing a lesson. The various devices used for this purpose include:
- (i) questioning,
- (ii) narration, description or lecturing,
- (iii) story telling
- (iv) using audio-visual aids,
- (v) demonstration or experimentation,
- (vi) dramatization or role-playing,
- (vii) visits or excursions, and
- (viii) use of examples, analogies and similarities.
2. Utilization of previous experiences:- One can not teach in vacuum. The new learning is to be based or completed with the help of previous learning, knowledge or experiences acquired through formal o informal education and direct or indirect experiences. A teacher has to acquire that art of utilizing such knowledge and experiences, and has to take care of the following:
- (i) Knowledge of the subject or subjects acquired by the pupils in the previous classes or days of the present session.
- (ii) General awareness of the pupils with their physical and social environment.
- (iii) The devices and techniques of exploring the previous knowledge,
- (iv) The techniques of establishing link between the previous and the new knowledge.
- (v) The ability of creating situations in the class for the utilization of previous experiences.
3. Relevancy of verbal or non-verbal behaviour:- A teacher should try to observe relevancy in his behaviour. What is to be stated, asked, demonstrated, dramatized, or illustrated should contribute maximum towards the introduction of lesson in some of the following ways:
- (i) Testing of the previous knowledge.
- (ii) Utilization of the past experiences.
- (iii) Establishing cognitive and affective rapport with the pupils.
- (iv) Making the pupils feel the need of studying the lesson.
- (v) Pinpointing the aims of lesson.
4. Maintenance of continuity:- Proper introduction requires continuity in the ideas or information presented to the pupils. There should be a logical sequence between the main part of the introduction. One question/statement or activity on the part of the teacher should lead to the other related ones in a chain of continuity creating the need of studying the lesson. What is done at a particular moment should be properly related to pupil's previous response and it should be properly linked with the preceding activity of the teacher himself.
For providing feedback on the teaching performance, the micro-lesson given by a trainee is supervised by the fellow trainees or teacher educator. For the purpose of obtaining objectivity and reliability in the observation process, it is always better to lay an observation schedule and get the supervisors trained in its use.
The observation schedule-cum-rating scale for the skill of introducing a lesson may consist of three columns. The first column indicates the tallies against the occurrence of the different component behaviours of the skill. The second column specifies the components of the skills. The third one contains a seven-point rating scale for each of the components. It is being illustrated in the proforma given below:
Table Observation schedule-cum-rating scale for the skill of introducing lesson
Name of the Student Teacher: ...........
Concept of Topic: ...........
Teach/Re-tech Time Duration: ............
|Desirable Behaviours:||Rating from External poor to Excellent|
|1. Using previous experience of the pupils||0 1 2 3 4 5 6|
|2. Proper use of device/technique||0 1 2 3 4 5 6|
|3. Overall impression about introducing a lesson||0 1 2 3 4 5 6|
|Tallies||Undesirable Behaviour||Rating from External poor to Excellent|
|1. Lack of continuity||0 1 2 3 4 5 6|
|2. Irrelevant verbal or non-verbal behaviour||0 1 2 3 4 5 6|
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