Meaning and Definition of Culture | Enculturation and Acculturation

In the narrow sense culture means that man-made social organization which promotes specific habits of thinking and living, specific habits of social

Meaning of Culture

In the narrow sense culture means that man-made social organization which promotes specific habits of thinking and living, specific habits of social interaction, specific ways of eating, dressing and living, religious and scientific beliefs and various material objects together with political and social customs, traditions and patterns of behaviour which cumulatively satisfy the various needs of human beings. In its wider sense, culture refers to all inclusive habits of thinking which shape human behaviour in all its aspects and in all fields of human activity.

Meaning and Definition of Culture

Definitions of Culture

(1). According to Tylor, "Culture is the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and other capacities and habits acquired by man as a member of the society."

(2). According to MacIver, "Culture is the expression of our nature in our modes of living and of thinking in our every day intercourse in art, in literature, in religion, in reaction and enjoyments."

(3). According to Biersted, "Culture is that complex whole that consists of every thing we think, do and have as members of society."

Civilization and Culture

Civilization and culture are not exactly the same, but the difference between the two is such that they are often considered synonymous. By using what nature has given to us, the progress made by man is called civilization, and what man creates with the help of intelligence is culture. Culture is related to inside and civilization with outside. Culture is the soul and civilization is the body. Culture is the spiritual level and civilization is the supraphysical. Culture is not developed by nature but by human, so culture is not a natural thing but a man-made artificial thing. Culture is not the fruit of the industry of an individual but the fruit of the collective. Civilization and culture can be explained in the following way-

  1. Civilization can be valued but culture cannot.
  2. Advancement of civilization is visible but not of culture.
  3. The pace of expansion in civilization is fast but nothing can be said about culture.
  4. Civilization is easily adopted from one generation to another but culture is not.

Kinds of Culture

In each society, culture is of two type as under-

(1) Material Culture:- Material culture includes all those man-made things and objects which human society has created for its physical welfare in times of peace and war. Items such as clothes, utensils, homes roads, ornaments, T.V., radio, various machines, gadgets and various means of transport and communication are some examples of material culture.

(2) Non-material Culture:- Non-material culture includes all those ideals, attitudes and values which modify the behaviour of an individual-Language, literature, art, music, religion, customs an traditions etc., are some examples of non-material culture.

Nature and Characteristics of Culture

Although not all scholars are unanimous in relation to the concept of culture in principle, but all are unanimous regarding its practical side, here we will present the same in the form of its nature and characteristics-

  1. Culture is a human characteristic
  2. Culture is the result of the spiritual practice of the human society.
  3. Culture is a special organization of cultural elements.
  4. Different societies have different cultures.
  5. Culture is ideal for a particular society.
  6. Culture binds the individuals of the society in one thread.
  7. Culture forms the personality of man.
  8. Culture is transferred from one generation to another.
  9. Culture changes and develops.
  10. Models of culture are pedagogical.
  11. Social qualities are inherent in culture.

Importance of Culture

The importance of culture can be explained as follows-

(1). Helpful in learning the art of living:- Culture reduces the life struggles of a person and gives him the ability to adjust to the environment and thus the person is successful in living a happy life.

(2). Helpful in determining the direction of social behavior:- After getting acquainted with his culture, a person starts working according to the social ideals, beliefs, traditions, values, ideals and thus he takes the direction of social behavior from the culture.

(3). Helpful in the formation of personality:- As the child grows up, the area of ​​his society becomes wider. He comes in contact with family first, then neighbourhood, then village, town, state, country and the world. As contacts grow, he gets unique experiences which he makes a part of his life. These experiences have a profound effect on his personality and thus his personality is formed.

(4). Helpful in socialization:- The culture of a society is rooted in its ethics, behaviour, beliefs, traditions and beliefs which are also the basis of socialization. This is how culture socializes the individual.

(5). Helpful in adaptation:- Geographical conditions, composition of society, etc. contribute a lot in the formation of culture. A person tries to adapt nature for his own pleasure and thus he gets a lot of help from culture in arranging himself from this environment.

(6). Helpful in establishing national unity:- Cultural unity is very helpful in establishing national unity. The members of a society having a culture have great faith in their traditions, beliefs, values and ideals etc.

(7). Helpful in determining the nature of national language:- Language is the basis of culture. Arabic, Persian and Urdu were given importance for the development of Islamic culture during the Muslim period. Urdu was made the language of business, English was encouraged by the British for the development of western culture. Hindi language has been accepted as the national language for the propagation of Indian culture in independent India.

(8). Helpful in making the new generation loyal to their ancestors:- After studying the development of their culture, the members of the new generation know what their ancestors have contributed in the development of their culture. This instils reverence and loyalty in their mind towards their ancestors and they preserve the legacy handed down by the old generation and pass it on to the new generation.

Education and Culture

Education and culture are closely related to each other. In this regard Brameld says, "Education is directly formed from the content of culture and this material gives education not only its own instrument but also the reason for its existence."

Education makes its outline according to the culture of the society and culture is formed on the basis of the tools, ideas and values of the society. If spirituality has a prominent place in the culture of a society, then in the education system there is special emphasis on morality, character and spiritual values. Along with this, the culture of a society is preserved through the society itself. Thus culture affects education and education affects culture.

A. Impact of Culture on Education

Today the education of any society depends on its religion, philosophy, its nature, its governance, its economy, psychological discoveries and scientific inventions. These are called philosophical, sociological, political, economic, psychological and scientific basis of education, in other words. The most influential element in the sociological bases is the culture of a particular society. This effect is as follows-

(1). The effect of culture on the aims of education:- the ways of living and eating habits of a particular society, behavior, customs, traditions, religious beliefs, art, law, morality, literature, music, language, ideas, beliefs , ideals and values etc. include all that is known as social heritage. Man is a social animal and his needs and aspirations are according to the culture of the society. The aim of education of the society whose culture is spiritual is also the spiritual progress and development of the children. In this way, the culture of any society deeply affects the aims of education of that society.

(2). Effect of Culture on the Curriculum of Education:- The curriculum of education is decided according to the objectives of education. The major elements of the culture of a particular society are fully incorporated in the curriculum of education of the society. Geographical location, climate, environment, living style, art, skill, music, dance-literature, ideal-ideas, values are all included in the curriculum and given to their teachers and children.

(3). Effect of Culture on Teaching Methods:- According to the ideology and culture of the society, teaching methods are developed. In a society where monopoly dominates the ideology, the interests and desires of the children are not given special importance and the teaching methods are also teacher-centred rather than student-centred. But in a society whose ideology, ideals and values are democratic, the teaching methods are student-centred.

(4). Effect of culture on discipline:- The culture of society also has an effect on discipline, the style of living of individuals, ethics, economic status, moral values and ideals, etc., which are part of culture, affect discipline. There is self-discipline in a society with a religion-dominated culture, whereas in a society with a material-dominated culture, there is external discipline.

(5). Effect of culture on school:- School is said to be a miniature form of society. Therefore schools are the center of the culture of a particular society. The school building, school system, school activities and the entire environment of the school are according to the culture there. For example, where public schools like Sophia, St. Mary's etc. are influenced by Christian culture, Saraswati Shishu Mandir, Vivekananda Vidyalaya, Ramtirth Sansthan, and Gurukul develop Indian culture.

(6). Influence in the form of culture on education:- The form of culture also affects the system of education and under material culture education will be arranged to develop qualities like love, cooperation, kindness, sympathy, compassion, morality, while physical Under culture, special emphasis will be given on locality. In industry-oriented culture, more importance will be given on industries and in agrarian culture, more importance will be given on agriculture.

B. Impact of Education on Culture

If on the one hand it is true that the culture of a society has an effect on its education, then on the other hand it is also true that the education of a society affects its culture. The impact of education on culture can be explained in the following points-

(1). Education preserves culture:- It is only through education that the culture of a society remains safe and alive. The culture of a society is the result of the spiritual practice of ages. That's why that society is very attached to him and he wants to keep it safe. And this work is done through education. Education maintains the continuity of culture through formal, informal and non-formal means. The present generation gets to know about their culture only through education.

(2). Education transfers culture:- Education not only preserves culture but also transfers it to the new generation. Culture maintains its existence only because of education. Education gives immortality to culture by transferring culture from one generation to another.

(3). Education develops culture:- although every society wants to preserve its culture in the way it receives it. But there are constant changes taking place in the society, it moves towards continuous development. In such a situation, the task of education is to bring the desired change in the culture and orient it towards development. It is the responsibility of education to develop and make useful the discipline, culture of the era and time.

(4). Education scavenges culture:- With the passage of time many elements of culture become useless and useless and lose their usefulness. Apart from this, many evils arise in the culture due to illiteracy, personal selfishness and superstitions etc. Education, by removing these useless and useless elements of culture and the evils created in it, refines the culture and removes its form and makes it useful.

(5). Education helps in the development of the personality of the individual:- Education develops the personality of the child according to the culture. Education makes use of cultural tools for the development of various parts of personality- intellectual, moral, character etc. and creates new tools every day. All-round development of the personality of the individual is done through education and such personalities enhance the culture of the society.

Enculturation Process

Enculturation is the process by which people learn the requirements of their surrounding culture and acquire values and behaviours appropriate or necessary in that culture. As part of this process, the influences that limit, direct, or shape the individual include parents, other adults, and peers. If successful. enculturation results in competence in the language, values, and rituals of the culture.

Enculturation is related to socialization. In some academic fields, socialization refers to the deliberate shaping of the individual. In others, the word may cover both deliberate and informal enculturation. Enculturation is the process where the culture that is currently established teaches an individual the accepted norms and values of the culture or society where the individual lives. The individual can become an accepted member and fulfill the needed functions and roles of the group, Most importantly the individual knows and establishes a context of boundaries and accepted behavior that dictates what is acceptable and not acceptable within the framework of that society.

Acculturation Process

Acculturation explains the process of cultural change and psychological change that results following meeting between cultures. The effects of acculturation can be seen at multiple levels in both interacting cultures. At the group level, acculturation often results in changes to culture, customs, and social institutions. Noticeable group level effects of acculturation often include changes in food, clothing, and language.

Those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups under this definition acculturation is to be distinguished from assimilation, which is at times a phase of acculturation.

Indian Culture Heritage

The culture of any country is the result of the spiritual practice of the people of that country. It separates and elevates humans from other creatures. As far as the culture of our country India is concerned, many cultures have developed here, but when we talk about Indian culture, we mean "Indian Aryan culture" which is continuing from Vedic times till now. . Indian culture is the oldest culture in the world and the richest culture. This culture of ours is a culture of auspiciousness, good luck and welfare of the entire human race. It was he who first taught the lesson of "Vasudeva Kutumbakam" to man. It was this which first led us towards "Sarve Bhavantu Sukhina". It is our Indian culture that teaches man to live not only for the society and the nation but for the whole world.

Our Indian culture has been spiritual and religion-oriented since the beginning. Our way of living, eating habits, customs, values and pickle-ideas have all been based on religion. This culture of ours is a culture of four Varnas (Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra), a culture of four Purusharthas (Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha), five Mahavratas (Truth, Ahinsa, Astaya, Aparigraha and Brahmacharya), There is a culture of abstaining from the five doshas (kama, anger, greed, delusion and item) and 16 sacraments (punsavan, seamantonnayan, jatkarma, naming, nishkraman, annaprashan, chudakarma, karnavedha, upanayana, vedaarambh, samvartana, marriage, grihasthashrama, vanaprastha). Ashram is a culture of Sanyasashrama and Anyeshti). Once in our country, the same person was considered to be cultured, who passed through the chain of the first 12 sanskars. Hospitality is another great feature of our Indian culture.

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