Meaning of Socialization
Socialization refers to the process by which an individual learns social habits, beliefs, customs and traditions and attitudes while interacting with other people. Through this action, the person, being inspired by the spirit of public welfare, tries to adapt himself to his family, neighborhood and other social classes so that he becomes a best, useful and responsible member of the society and all the above social institutions and classes Keep praising him.
Definition of Socialization
The definitions of Socialization are as follow-
1. According to J.S. Ross, "Socialization is the development of we-feeling in associates and the growth in their capacity and will to act together."
2. According to Havighurst and Newgarton, "Socialization is the process by which children learn the ways of their society and make these ways part of their own personality."
3. According to Bogardus, "Socialization is the process whereby persons learn to behave dependably together on behalf of human welfare and in so doing experiences social self-control, social responsibility and balanced responsibilities."
Process of Socialization
The process of socialization of the child starts from a few days after birth, the process of socialization of the child starts from the family. does. In this way, by imitating the child knowingly or unknowingly starts playing the role of other members of the family. It is on the basis of imitation that he learns the roles of parents, siblings, etc. His behavior gradually becomes stable. Gradually the child begins to understand the difference between himself and the father and between himself and the mother, what is he himself? In this way self development takes place which is an essential element of socialization.
Elements of Socialization
Sociologists have studied the process of socialization very closely. According to him the process of socialization consists of four elements-
(1). Biological characteristic of man:- Man has his own biological characteristic; He is born with some basic instincts, emotions, general innate tendencies, senses and brain. On the basis of these, his socialization takes place. Without them we cannot socialize it.
(2). Social Interactions:- The second essential element for the socialization of man is social interaction. Unless a man comes in contact with other human beings and there are no interactions between them, he can neither learn the language of the society nor the methods of conduct. By learning them, he becomes a social animal from biological old.
(3). Definite results of social interactions:- It is also necessary for socialization that the interactions between person-person or person-society have definite results; Societal behavior of meaningless interactions cannot be learned.
(4). Acceptance-rejection of consequences:- Where there is action, there will be consequences, living among thieves, the child can learn to steal, but when he comes to know that this act is not accepted by the society and by doing so he cannot adjust in the society. He will not accept that task. Socialization is done by learning the behavior accepted by the society and doing the corresponding behavior.
Factor affecting of Socialization
1. Upbringing:- Parenting plays an important role in the socialization of a child. Early life The kind of environment the child gets, according to the type of environment he gets, emotions and feelings develop in the child. A child commits anti-social behavior only when he is unable to settle himself with the society.
2. Sympathy:- Empathy also has a profound effect on the socialization of the child. The reason for this is that through empathy, a sense of belongingness develops in the child. As a result of which they learn to discriminate between each other. He starts loving the person whose behavior is sympathetic towards him.
3. Social Learning:- Social learning starts from the family, where the child receives education from parents, siblings and other members through food and living habits etc.
4. Rewards and Punishments:- When the child behaves according to the ideals and beliefs of the society, people praise him and give rewards for that work. On the other hand, when the child behaves in any anti-social behavior, then punishment is given due to which he does not behave like this again due to fear.
5. Inheritance:- The child has some genetic properties acquired by inheritance. For example, motives, emotions, instinctive actions and abilities, etc. Apart from this, heredity also plays a major role in their qualities like imitation and empathy. All these elements are responsible for the socialization of the child.
6. Family:- The socialization of a child begins with his family. The child stays in contact with the people for his family, then learns from them. He starts imitating the living, talk-thoughts, etc. of the family members. In this way the family plays an important role in the socialization of the child.
Role of teacher in the process of socialization
Teacher plays a very important role in the socialization of a child. Hence, to reinforce and spread up this process, a teacher should keep in mind the following-
1. Parent-Teacher Co-operation:- The first task of teacher is to come into close contact with the parents of the child and from them try to know about the interests, aptitudes and tendencies of the child and then try to provide suitable facilities for the maximum development of that. child in a natural way.
2. Transmission of Culture:- Teacher should try his best to convey to the children the cultural heritage in the form of customs, traditions, ideals, values and patterns of behaviour in a very imperceptible but effective way. This transmission of cultural values will effectively lead to desirable socialization of children.
3. Social Ideals:- Teacher should try to put social ideals before children everywhere-in class rooms, on the playgrounds in cultural and social functions, in all academic activities and diverse programmes. Identification with these social ideals will lead to socialization gradually.
4. Traditions of School:- School traditions exert powerful influences upon the process of socialization. Hence, the teacher should inspire belief and appreciation of those traditions in children encouraging them to follow them in their conduct and other activities.
5. Encouragement of Group Work:- Teacher should devise and launch projects where children work jointly in groups with mutual co-operation, sympathy and fellow-feeling. More and more group activities will develop more and more social qualities which eventually lead to socialization.
6. Development of Inter-Cultural Feeling:- Children belonging to different families believing in different cultures mix freely in school. Teacher should try to develop inter-cultural feeling in children so that they learn to respect their own culture along with other cultures also.
Elements Hindering the Socialization of the Child
According to the thinkers, the elements that hinder the socialization of children are as follows-
- Cultural conditions:- such as preconceptions related to caste, religion, class etc.
- Childhood Circumstances:- Such as lack of parental love, always discord between parents, widowed mother, partiality, loneliness and unfair punishment etc.
- Immediate circumstances:- such as disappointment, humiliation, practice irregularity, harshness, ridicule and jealousy of siblings, friends, neighbors, etc.
- Other conditions:- such as physical inferiority, poverty, failure, lack of education, lack of self-confidence and lack of self-reliance etc.
Factors Leading to the Socialization of a Child
At the time of birth a human child is no more than a mere animal. As he gradually comes into contact with other children and participates more and more in joint social activities and experiences, he imbibes social ideas, social attitudes and social habits. This process of socialization is a continuing process and guess on throughout life. Now, we are discussing the important factors leading to the socialization of a child in the following lines-
(1) Family:- Family plays a pivotal role in the socialization of a child Every child is born in a family where he comes in close contact with his parents and other members of the family. As he grows older, he learns a number of socially desirable qualities namely-love, sympathy tolerance and cooperation, etc. Not only this, living in his family he gradually learns the ideals, values, beliefs, customs and traditions of the family directly or indirectly.
(2) Neighbourhood:- Neighbourhood also is like a wider and enlarged family. The same process of interaction in the numbers of a family continues its operation in the persons living together as neighbourers. Children living in the same locality interact among themselves and gain norms of behaviour, habits of living and co-operative attitudes to solve their immediate simple problems of day to day living. In this sense, if the neighbourhood is wholesome and conducive, socialization will be desirable.
(3) School:- After the family and the neighbourhood, school is a place where socialization of a child takes place. In school, children belonging to different families read together, interact in various patterns and imbibe various traditions of society. Besides this, their participation in educational and social functions of the school also inculcates in children social qualities, attitudes, habits and patterns of behaviour which brings about their socialization.
(4) Games and Sports:- Every child is fond of play. We see that there is more effective interaction in games and sports than organised teaching in a class. In other words, while playing various social qualities namely-sympathy, co-operation, fellow feeling selfless service, sacrifice, team spirit and many other socially desirable values develop in children to make their socialization more effective and purposeful.
(5) Scouting and Girl guiding:- Scounting and girl guiding also lead to effective socialization. The moto of these organizations is service of society and service of self. They motivate and inspire children to launch and pursue social service projects and programmes through co-operative efforts, sacrifice sympathy fellow-feeling, selfless service of others and many other human qualities, so essential to effective socialization.
(6) Caste:- The main purpose of a caste is to socialize the child. It may be noted that each caste has its specific customs, traditions achievements, cultural values and ideals of life different from those of others. Hence each caste tries to socialize its children according to its specific ideals, attitudes and values. This is the reason why socialization of children belonging to different castes is different.
(7) Community or Society:- Community or society also plays a vital role in the specialization of a child. Various social functions and community programmes provide ample opportunities to children to participate in them whole heartedly and develop socially desirable qualities.